Saturday, 25 March 2017

Informal Haywood criticism, blogs etc

[I have moved this on section of my Eliza Haywood Links here, since my 2009 post was becoming unweildy. I hadn't updated it for years (since 2012?), and I don't plan on updating it again any time soon. Now that so much formal criticism is readily available online, there is less need for it. And since this type of ephemeral and informal discussion is very prone to dissapearing from online, it is a constant battle maintain the links—time better spent keeping up with the primary and secondary texts.]

For a defunct blog titled A Blog to be Let, see here.

November 2005: Janet posted her thoughts on Eliza Haywood "Fantomina"

February 2007: The Literate Kitten posted her thoughts on Love in Excess by Eliza Haywood

November 2007: P. Brigitte posted her thoughts on The History of Miss Betsy Thoughtless

July 2009: Stephen J. Gertz posted his thoughts on The Secret History of … the Court of Caramania in a post titled Sex! Scandal! Political Intrigue! (What Else Is New?)

December 2009: The students of St. Christopher’s and St. Catherine’s posted their thoughts on Fantomina in a series of posts here

January 2010: J. Y. posted her/his thoughts on The Great Debate in Love in Excess

February 2010: Kate Wallis posted her thoughts on Love “Barter’d” in The City Jilt

February 2010: Stephanie Jarnold posted her thoughts on Fire and Seduction in Eliza Haywood’s “The City Jilt”

March 2010: Kristen Eggen posted her thoughts on The City Jilt – Fall from Hopes

June 2010: Meminsanebrane posted her/his thoughts on Fantomina is a creeper

October 2010: Liz posted her thoughts on Haywood's appearance in Clara Reeve's The Progress of Romance in Sisters under the dust-jacket.

December 2010: Jill Domschot posted her thoughts on Eliza Haywood: from The Female Spectator, Vol. 1, No. 1

January 2011: Students at the University of Illinois doing Engl 206/CWL 257: Enlightenment Literature and Culture posted their thoughts on Fantomina in a series of posts, mostly here and here.

May 2011: Kat Aubrey posted her thoughts on Eliza Haywood, Remarkable 18th Century Author

August 2011: Students at The University of Illinois doing Engl 429: The Eighteenth Century Novel posted their thoughts on Fantomina in a series of posts, mostly here and here.

February–April 2012: Students at The University of Colorado at Boulder doing ENGL 1260-002: Intro to Women's Lit: Adventures in Form posted their thoughts on Fantomina in a series of posts, mostly here and here.

Thursday, 23 March 2017

First Exhibition to Focus on Eliza Haywood

In 2004, in the literature-survey section of my Bibliography of Eliza Haywood, I explained that

no public or private library has approached completeness in gathering together the works of Haywood. Indeed, it appears as if no library has ever made the attempt. The best Haywood collections are those held by the largest academic and public libraries, which have such collections by virtue of the fact that they have a lot of books. Consequently, no auction or library catalogue has offered a useful substitute for a Haywood bibliography or offered substantial assistance in compiling this bibliography. Also, there have been no substantial exhibitions of Haywood’s works and no substantial collections offered by booksellers and hence no accompanying catalogues to draw upon.

I am very pleased to say that this situation has changed. In a footnote to this passage I acknowledged that "Sandy Lerner has collected nineteen Haywood items since 1990 as a part of a larger project at Chawton House to promote research into the writings of English women before 1830." Though their collection is small (it just scrapes into the top thirty collections, in a tie with New York Public Library at no.29/30), the context is important. Chawton House is a collection with a purpose. Chawton House has made an attempt to collect Haywood and other women writers like her. And Chawton House does not have a collection of her books only "by virtue of the fact that they have a lot of books." It is appropriate then, that Chawton House will be the location of the first Haywood exhibition (details here), and it is a huge achievement that the collection has so quickly reached the point where they are able to host an exhibition of Haywood's works at all.

Though not credited online, the exhibition ("Naming, Shaming, Reclaiming: The ‘Incomparable’ Eliza Haywood") has been curated by Dr Kim Simpson, a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Chawton House Library. If you read her bio (here), you will see that Kim is interested in the contribution made to the development of fiction by anonymous and unattributed texts—texts which are rarely taught, edited or discussed by an author-obsessed academy. Given my own focus on Haywood, I must plead guilty to contributing to this unhealthy, anachronistic obsesson with authors—and I must admit to regularly having to do battle the urge to suggest any new, plausible attributions—but in my defence I would point out that I kept these unhealth urges in check and dismissed more attributions (45) than I added (2). And one that I dismissed (Ca.36 The Prude) is Kim's "particular favourite for its libertine villainess, Elisinda."

The exhibition is open for more than two months. Unfortunately, I won't be able to make it, so I hope that lots of people post pictures and descriptions online and that a catalogue of some sort is printed—since that too would be a first!

Thursday, 16 March 2017

The Van Everen Fitsanybook Adjustable Book Cover

Sing this 1890 jingle with me children,

The Van Everen Cover is the right Book Cover.
  It's modern, it's useful, it's neat;
So it's no use to bother or try any other,
  For Van Everen's cannot be beat.

When I received my copy of his Nineteenth-Century Dust-Jackets, I was glad to see that Mark Goldburn includes a description (on 92–93) of various American "stationers' jackets" that were being sold in the 1870s. Two years ago, I had to go to great lengths to buy the below, unused Van Everen Adjustable Book Cover, and was only able to do so thanks to the kind assistance of David Levy (Hoyle bibliographer/collector and the genius behind this blog). Mark describes these "Fitsanybook" jackets, but does not offer any images—which is a shame, but even in a heavily-illustrated book there are limits to how many illustrations you can include. Since there is not much online about them, I thought it might be worth posting something here.

Van Everen advertised their "Neat and Convenient Ready made Book Cover" from 1872–1894 in terms as follows:

P. F. Van Everen's Adjustable Book Cover, consists of a loose or supplementary cover, made of strong manilla paper, in four parts [as above], said parts being self-sealing, and adjustable in relation to each other, as they are put on the book, so as to fit many different sizes of books. The object of this invention is to supply libraries, schools, and book users generally, with a cheap, convenient and neat book cover, already cut, folded, gummed, and in part sealed—thus affording, at a trifling cost, a complete book cover, that fits any book. These covers are extensively used by schools and Sunday-school libraries. Samples sent free to any address upon receipt of six cents for postage, by P. F. Van Everen, care of N. Y. Silicate Book Slate Co., 191 Fulton street, corner Church, N. Y.

This advertising spiel ran in The Weekly Trade Circular on 29 February 1872, and was repeated with minor variations in The Publishers' Weekly and Library Notes from 1872–1893. This advertisement explains that Van Everen's Adjustable Book Cover was patented 3 May 1870 (American Bookseller, vol.1, no.6 (15 March 1876): 221) and in 1876 Van Everen explained that his "Book-Covers have been in use for six years," dating the sale of the covers to the same year as they were patented (Minutes of the Illinois Baptist Pastoral Union, Thirty-First Annual Meeting ... Chicago, October 17–20, 1876 (Aurora, IL: Knickerbocker and Hodder, 1876), [8]).

In 1873, the "Trade Price" for these "Fitsanybook" covers—with a dealer's imprint added to them (see example below presently available on eBay here)—ranged from twenty dollars for one thousand down to fifteen dollars per thousand for five thousand or more (The Publishers' Weekly, no.87 (13 September 1873): 288). A few years later the American Educational Annual, vol. 1 (New York: J. W. Schermerhorn, 1875), listed the covers at two dollars per box of one hundred.

From 1876, Van Everen was advertsing his Adjustable Book-Covers (NB: plural), in three sizes: A (as above; "School and Sunday-School books," 18mo, 16mo and 12mo; $2.00 per 100)—which seems to be the original size—plus two new sizes: B ("Elementary and Primary Geographies, Law and Medical books"; seemingly, 8vo; $3.50 per 100) and C ("large Atlas Geographies"; seemingly, folio; $5.00 per 100) (Minutes of the Illinois Baptist Pastoral Union, [8]), adding that his covers "are the only supplementary covers that can be successfully and economically applied to different sizes of books and Sunday School Library books." In 1878, an even smaller size was introduced: the "Primary," for "the smallest Sunday School Library books" ($1.50 per 100) (Steiger's Educational Directory for 1878 (New York: E. Steiger, 1878), 221).

On 14 February 1888, Van Everen patented a new and more elaborate design for the "Fitsanybook" ("The Adjustable Book Cover: Just the Thing for Schools and Libraries"), and on 15 August 1890, Van Everen sent a very long "letter and accompanying documents to The Stationer" (see below), which advertises the covers in "three colors of papers" (regular manilla, a dark colour, and a cover that is "lithographed in fancy figures") plus a "leatherette" finish. But the days of the Fitsanybook cover appear to have been numbered; the last reference that I can find to it is in the Proceedings of the Americal Library Association, 17–22 September 1894, in a list of "'Don't'; Warnings of Experience. Communicated by a number of librarians": "Don't invest in the Van Everen Fitsanybook adjustable book-covers called 'Fitsanybook.' There is more tear than wear in them."

* * * * *

Van Everen must have sold hundreds of thousands of these book covers (below they claim "about a million"), so it is not too hard to find books which have intact jackets. Above, for example, is one presently available on eBay (here), with an intact library label for the "Library of the E.C. Fraternity. This appears to be the regular manilla Fitsanybook design. The one below with a private library label, and the 1888 patent date on it, seems to be the lithographed version with "fancy figures." Images from the inside of my own set of covers (also lithographed) are further below, for comparison. There is another one with this design presently available on eBay (here).

* * * * *

Advertisement in The American Stationer, vol.1, no.6 (20 August 1890): 389:

P. F. Van Everen, Manufacturer of Adjustable Book Covers and Perforated Library Numbers, sends the following letter and "accompanying documents" to The Stationer: 60 Ann Street, New York, August 15, 1890. To the Editor of The Stationer:
  We have advertised considerably in The Stationer and with such uniform good results that we would like once more to stir up the Trade by way of remembrance, but just how to do that in a fresh, new way is hard to plan and harder to work the plan.
  We have been making book covers for many years; so long, in fact, that the profits on their manufacture and sale have made some persons independent of the ordinary vicissitudes of commercial life, and it is well understood that we make the best book cover that was ever placed on the market. It has had the largest sale of any stationery novelty, and we mean to keep making them as long as it pays—the manufacturer.
  What we would like to have you do for us is this: Fix up an advertisement so that we can get the attention of the new firms who have recently started in to make their fortunes by dealing in books and stationery. The old-established dealers know all about us now, but we would like to have every dealer who has not used the Van Everen book covers know that they are commercially convenient, useful, ornamental and popular. We use three colors of papers for our covers—the regular manilla color, a dark color that wears well and does not show soiling so soon as the others, and a cover that is lithographed in fancy figures.
  We also make some covers of leather paper (leatherette), for use in very choice localities or hi-calities. Of those we make the size A only, and they retail for 5 cents each. That may seem pretty precipitous, but people will have them. A cover of that kind is dreadfully durable and in the dark colors keeps quite clean till used up. The "leather" covers are put up fifty in a box—quite a nice box, too—and are sold to the dealers for $1.25 per box.
  We meant to have asked you to put in the advertisement that we make more library numbers and letters now than we ever did before, but you cannot devote a whole column to Yours truly,


It is a noticeable fact that the sales of the Van Everen book covers are increasing yearly, and that not only the schools but the libraries are using them in quantities.

* * * *

The old-fashioned cover was a good enough cover
  When paper and time were so free,
But as 'tis fussy and old and cannot be sold,
  It's not the Book Cover for me.

The Van Everen Cover is the right Book Cover.
  It's modern, it's useful, it's neat;
So it's no use to bother or try any other,
  For Van Everen's cannot be beat.

* * * *

By the way, most of the booksellers that sell school books find that it is a good plan to furnish book covers with every school book that they sell. The dealer has a neat card advertising his business printed on the outside of the front part of the cover, and gives a cover to every buyer of a book. The printing only costs about 50 cents per thousand.
* * * *

These cards are printed on at the time and place of manufacture, as a usual thing, but as many of the dealers are having constant calls for covers that are without the advertisement they buy the covers unprinted to meet that demand, and on those that are for the give-away trade they stamp what advertising matter they want with a rubber stamp.
* * * *

Little Sallie Waters, sitting in the sun,
With a beau 'n umbrella, having lots of fun.
Rise, Sallie, rise, 'tis time to be wise,
Look through the East and look through the West,
Van Everen's book covers are the best.

* * * *

They may be the best, or they may not be the best; it is the way they suit your needs. We do not wish to make such extravagant statements about the book covers that the dealers will think that the goods will sell themselves. We do not wish to force sales. All that we wish to do is to let the dealers know what the book covers are and where they may be had. Then when they want them it is easy to make a sale.

* * * *

There was a man in our town,
  Who was so wondrous wise.
He made a patent book cover,
  To fit books of any size,
And when he saw how well they sold,
  Said he: "It is quite plain,
I'll make them by the million
  And I get there just the same."

* * * *

We were asked, the other day, how many new school books were put into the hands of the rising generation every year, and we had to answer that we didn't know. But we might have made a guess at it, for about a million of them are covered with adjustable book covers, and if we estimate that only one out of every ten school books is covered at all we get a total of ten millions. Well, who would not belong to a Great Book Company if he could?


Answers to Correspondents.

B., Keokuk, Ia., wants to know if the Van Everen adjustable book covers are sold at wholesale in Chicago.
Ans.— Certainly. A. C. McClurg [and] Co., S. A. Maxwell & Co., The Western News Company, and C. M. Barnes keep them in stock constantly.
R., St. Joseph, Mo., asks who sells the Van Everen adjustable covers in St. Louis.
Ans.—They are principally sold by The J. L. Boland Book and Stationery Company.
Librarian, Springfield, Ill., writes: "Where can we get gummed, numbered tags ready made?"
Ans.—From Van Everen, 60 Ann street, New York. Order direct.
S. A. M., Milwaukee, Wis., wants address of the manufacturer of carriage checks in duplicate; also hat checks, etc.
Ans.—P. F. Van Everen, 60 Ann street, New York. There seems to be quite a sameness about these answers, but we cannot pervert the facts even for the sake of variety.
  To answer about a dozen letters in a lump, we may as well add that the Van Everen book covers, as well as his general specialties, are not only for sale as above, but also by the following wholesale dealers: J. K. Gill [and] Co., Portland, Ore.; Cunningham, Curtiss & Welch, San Francisco, Cal.; The Chain [and] Hardy Book, Stationery and Art Company, of Denver, Col.; The Burrows Bros. Company, Cleveland, Ohio; Brown, Eager & Hull, Toledo, Ohio; Vosburgh, Whiting [and] Co., Buffalo. N. Y.; J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, Pa., and by all the large book and stationery jobbers of New York city.


For particulars as to the sizes and the prices to the booksellers, see the full page advertisement on the other side of this sheet. P. F. VAN EVEREN, 60 Ann Street, New York.

Sunday, 5 March 2017

A Cultural History of the Songster

While Paul Watt and I were working on our four-volume collection Bawdy Songbooks of the Romantic Period (2011), with Derek B. Scott, David Gregory and Ed Cray, we discussed the possibility of continuing our collaboration, and directing scholarly attention to the songsters that were at the heart of the collection, by holding a conference and/or editing a collection of essays. In the end (i.e., over the last six years), we did/have done both.

Although our book, edited by Derek, Paul and I for Cambridge University Press, is not officially in print until 23 March, it has appeared on Google Books here, today, so I thought I'd use this excuse to post the very cool cover art and thank my brilliant co-editors for making this collection possible.

I also wanted to repeat something I have had reason to say many times before (such as here), Government bodies (I am looking at you ARC), and Universities, are obsessed with "Evidence of Impact." I can trace the prompt for two collaborative enterprises, an essay ("Fanny Hill, Lord Fanny, and the Myth of Metonymy") and an edited collection (Bawdy Songbooks of the Romantic Period), both of which were published in 2011, to August 2000. And I can trace the prompt for the present collaborative enterprise to those 2011 publications. The second time-frame is shorter (six years instead of ten), which I can probably credit to Paul and Derek, but they are still long. Likewise, the time-frame for other scholars using our publications is almost as long and so, only now, are citations for these publications beginning to accumulate and multiply.

In November 2010 I wrote:

When it can take a decade … between the prompt for an article and its publication, and when it can take three years between the submission of an article and it being printed, there seems little chance that an ARC final report, submitted on the day your funding stops, will capture even a fraction of your "Research outputs" and, as for "Evidence of Impact," it could be years again before any of the arguments [you] have presented gain any traction.

While we wait for "evidence of impact" to accumulate for today's publication, we will each keep ourselves busy with our next projects. Meanwhile, here is the cool cover art I mentioned:

BTW: The first title for our book was The Nineteenth-Century Songster: A Cultural History; our second A Cultural History of the Songster: Cheap Print and Popular Song in the Nineteenth Century, but we got rolled. CUP didn't want "Songster" in the main title at all, and I note that the sub-title is missing from the "About this book" page on Google (here). As you may have guessed, I didn't agree with CUP's arguments for changing the title, and that is why I am using the sub-title here!

Saturday, 4 March 2017

Iwan Bloch on the erotic engravings of Fanny Hill

Henry Spencer Ashbee (1834–1900) (aka Pisanus Fraxi) claims, in his Catena Librorum Tacendorum (1885), 83, that "Few works have been more frequently illustrated than the Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure." He goes on to describe five mezzotints, "designed probably by George Morland, and engraved by his brother-in-law, William Ward, or by John Raphael Smith" (ibid.). (The whole of this book is available on the Internet Archive here.)

Ashbee cites La Bibliophile Fantaisiste (Geneva, 1869), 48, for the five plates he discusses, "with eight others." This information was repeated, in turn, by Iwan Bloch (aka Eugen Duehren; 1872–1922), who translated it into German in his Das Geschlechtsleben in England, mit besonderer Beziehung auf London, 3 Teile in 3 Bänden (Berlin, 1901-3) [Sex life in England, with special reference to London, 3 parts in 3 volumes]. This work was revised and shortened as Englische Sittengeschichte, 2 vols. (Berlin, 1912) [The history of English customs].

Bloch's earlier, longer work was twice translated (much abridged): first in America by Richard Deniston as Ethnological and cultural studies of the sex life in England: illustrated, as revealed in its erotic and obscene literature and art; with nine private cabinets of illustrations by the greatest English masters of erotic art, Translated and Edited by Richard Deniston (New York: Falstaff Press, 1934) and second in England by William H. Forstern as Sexual Life in England: Past and Present (London: Alfred Aldor, 1938; repr. London: Arco Publications, in association with the Rodney Book Service, 1958). The whole of Ethnological and cultural studies of the sex life in England is on the Internet Archive here; but Sexual Life in England: Past and Present is not online.

Given how horribly complicated it is trying to unravel the relationship between the above books, I thought it might be worth using the passage concerning the mezzotints by Morland (1763-1804) in Das Geschlechtsleben in England (vol.2 of which is online here) to show the differences between the three texts. I have put the British translation first, since it sticks closer to the German.

The Bloch passage is Das Geschlechtsleben in England, mit besonderer Beziehung auf London, 2.296–97; translated as Sexual Life in England: Past and Present (1958), 650; Ethnological and cultural studies of the sex life in England, 350–51:

Auch Zeichnungen zu eigentlichen obscönen und erotischen Schriften hat George Morland in Verbindung mit Ward und J. R Smith geliefert, vor allem die fünf folgenden vortreffllichen Mezzotintos zu John Cleland's „Memoire of a woman of pleasure"

No. 1. Fanny Hill and Phoebe. Phoebe berührt Fanny in indecenter Weise. Rechts ein Tisch mit einer brennenden Kerze.
No. 2. Mrs. Brown, the Horse Grenadier, and Fanny Hill. Fanny beobachtet durch eine Glasthür die fette Mrs. Brown in einer Liebesszene mit einem Soldaten.
No. 3. Fanny Hill, Louisa, and the Nosegay Boy. Der Junge und die zwei Freudenmädchen. Im Vordergründe ein Korb mit Blumen. Rechte auf dem Stuhl eine Rate.
No. 4. Harriet ravish'd in the Summer House (Harriet wird in dem Sommerhäuschen genotzüchtigt).
No. 4a. Dieselbe Szene ohne Titel, mit leichten Differenzen in Haartracht und Kleidung der Frau, der Ausstattung des Raumes u.s.w. Ist wohl die ältere-Zeichnung, und No. 4 eine spätere Kopie.
No. 5. Harriet and the Barronet (sie). Ein Paar auf einer Ottomane, während zwei andere Paare hinter demselben stehen und sie beobachten.
No. 5a. Dieselbe Scene mit leichten Aenderungen. Sopha, Haarfarbe und Haartrachten sind verschieden, rechts ist ein Lehnstuhl, links im Vordergründe Männerlut und Stiefel.

Forstern [the bracketed bits below are the bits of the German text omitted from his translation]

George Morland, in association with Ward and J. R. Smith, also supplied illustratons to obscene books. The following five excellent mezzotintos were for "Memoir of a Woman of Pleasure"

1. Fanny Hill and Phoebe. Phoebe touching Fanny in an indecent manner. [To the right, a table with a burning candle.]
2. Mrs. Brown, the Horse Grenadier, and Fanny Hill. Fanny watching through a glass door a love scene between the stout Mrs. Brown and a soldier.
3. Fanny Hill, Louisa, and the Nosegay Boy. Youth and two prostitutes. Basket of flowers and rod.
4. Harriet ravish'd in the Summerhouse. [Harriet is raped in the summer cottage]
[4a. The same scene without title, with slight differences in the hair and clothes of the woman, and the equipment in the room etc. This is probably the older drawing, and no. 4 a later copy.]
5. Harriet and the Barronet (sic). A couple on a setee, with two other watching them.
[5a. The same scene with slight changes. Sopha, hair colour and style are different. On the right is an arm-chair, on the left in the foreground men's boots and boots.]


Morland also illustrated the real erotic works. His best known are the five superb mezzotints to John Cleland's Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure:

No. 1. Fanny Hill and Phoebe. Phoebe is initiating Fanny into tribadic practices.
[No.2] and Fanny Hill. Fanny secretly observes the fat Mrs. Brown being engaged by a lusty soldier.
No. 3. Fanny Hill, Louisa, and the Nosegay Boy. The youth is engaged with the two prostitutes. In the foreground a basket with flowers. At the right, a rod on a stool.
No. 4. Harriet ravish'd in the Summer House. A powerful drawing of a forcible rape.
No. 5. Harriet and the Barronet (sic). A couple engaged on the ottoman, while two other couples stand behind and watch them.

As you can see above, both Forstern and Deniston shorten Bloch's text, thought they do it is slightlly different ways. Both omit any mention of the "table with a burning candle" in no.1; but sometimes Fortern includes more detail (explaining, in no.2, that Fanny is "watching through a glass door") and somethimes Deniston includes more (describing no. 4 as "A powerful drawing of a forcible rape"). In general, Deniston is more informal ("the stout Mrs. Brown and a soldier" vs "the fat Mrs. Brown being engaged by a lusty soldier"), and is inclined to explain more ("Phoebe touching Fanny in an indecent manner" vs "Phoebe is initiating Fanny into tribadic practices"). What this means is that neither Forstern nor Deniston can be relied on.

* * * * *

The five Mezzotints described by Ashbee and Bloch are below. Where I could find both coloured and uncoloured versions, I include both.

BTW: if you'd like to buy a set of these engravings, be prepared to pay a lot! See here for a set which sold for Euro 15,600 in 2006.